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Selection of the construction site

   The building project begins with the selection of the area and construction site. When you already have a piece of land, we perceive many design variables as de facto.

   But if you are only looking for a piece of land, then we advise you to pay attention to a number of factors.

relief factors

Факторы рельефа
  • Area with active terrain. A site with an active relief is observed in mountainous areas, in the zone of river mouths and gullies. From such a site, most likely, a wonderful panorama of the forest or water surface opens up. But beauty in this case requires increased attention to the organization of the relief. Installation of additional retaining walls, strengthening of slopes and hidden drainage of groundwater and rainwater. ​

  • Area with exposed rock. This factor can be both positive, if the rock base can be used as a support for the foundations of the building, and negative, when the rock volume will prevent the location of the building spot in the desired location.

Water Factors

Факторы воды
  • High groundwater level. This is a factor that will be decisive in the choice of foundation, its waterproofing, as well as in the complexity of building a basement or garage in your house below the building's zero mark. This factor will determine a number of additional measures to drain water from the roof of buildings and the site as a whole.

  • The rate of infiltration of rainwater into the soil. This factor will determine the possibility of water runoff from the roofs of future buildings, pavings and porches. It must be considered along with the level of groundwater. It will also have an impact on the choice of wastewater drainage systems for the installation of biological treatment systems.

  • Flooding of the territory. Near reservoirs and gullies, cases of flooding of the territory due to snowmelt, rivers and lakes overflowing their banks, heavy rainfall and floods are not uncommon. Often, such conditions can be found in geological surveys in the area. This factor will determine the height of the basement, or the technical underground of the building, and will affect the choice of foundations.

  • Aggressiveness of ground waters. Ground water with certain chemical compounds can be aggressive towards not only metal, but also concrete. In this case, it will be necessary to take measures to protect the foundations for the future building with any design. Sea water will also be aggressive during construction on the coastline.

  • Suitability of water for drinking and technical needs. In the absence of a central water supply, a well or a well can be a source of water. Try to find out from the people living in the area what source they use and why. Not always the depth of the well can solve the problem with water quality due to the complexity of the soil conditions (rocky soils at the base or a significant depth of occurrence). In such a situation, it is necessary to install a water treatment system, which will require constant attention to itself during operation. At the same time, it may be necessary to correct the unsuitability of water not only for drinking needs, but also for technical and even for irrigation.

Soil factors

Факторы грунтов
  • Soil quality. Under natural conditions, it is extremely rare to find a homogeneous homogeneous soil, unless it is an artificial bulk base or rock. Therefore, natural soil is always a combination of different rocks (sand, clay, silt and other formations). A number of soils are characterized by such a condition as subsidence during soaking and heaving during freezing - both of these factors will affect the design of the foundations and the frame of the building. A detailed picture can be seen only by the results of geological surveys of the site or adjacent territories.

  • ​High natural level of ground gases. One such gas can be radon, a colorless, inert radioactive gas that can be hazardous to health in high concentrations. At room temperature, it is one of the heaviest gases, that is, it fills the volume of the room from the bottom up. Has a half-life of 3.8 days. The content of radon in the soil can be negligible, or it can be significant for accumulation in the cavities of structures and getting into areas of living space. Today it is possible to order studies to determine the concentration of radon in the soil and take measures to protect the building from its penetration, if necessary.

Map of natural radioactivity of the territory of Ukraine

Карта естественной радиоактивности территории Украины
  • seismic activity. Seismic zoning maps are defined for all regions of developed countries. If you are choosing a site on a global scale, then of course it is better to choose an area with less seismic activity. But you must take into account that construction in zones with a score of 7 and above will require additional measures when designing all building structures.

Seismicity map of the territory of Ukraine

Карта сейсмичности территории Украины

technogenic factors

Факторы техногенные
  • The presence within the district and region of a chemical or heavy industry, associated both with emissions into the atmosphere and with the possible ingress of industrial products into waters (lakes, rivers, groundwater). 

  • Location in the area of sources of increased noise (quarries, transshipment stations, railway tracks, highways and even entertainment complexes). A railroad, for example, which may be barely audible during the day at a distance, will be a significant factor in discomfort at night, when background noise levels are much lower. A window slightly open for ventilation will become an open channel for noise into your bedroom. 

 

  • Location near any sources of vibration (tram, railway tracks) will not have the best impact not only on the well-being of residents, but also on the structure of the building as a whole in the long term. All building structures are subject to the damaging effects of vibration and vibration resonance.

  • Location of underground engineering networks. The security zones of the main networks passing through the sites can significantly constrain the spot of possible development of the territory. Therefore, at a very early stage, you should make sure that the high-pressure gas pipeline, for example, goes far beyond your site.

  • High voltage power lines. The construction of residential buildings under power lines is prohibited, but it happens to observe the development of such territories. You must clearly understand that when a 110 kV power transmission line passes or will pass near your future home, for example, it is better to abandon such a site in favor of another.

Cholovsky K

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